HIT Training – West Point Experiment Proof?

The West Point Experiment proving HIT works.

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After the Colorado experiment, Arthur Jones wanted to do another controlled study at a university, he sent out feelers to Ohio State, Georgia Tech and Clemson but they were slow to commit. Then he was told that West Point had bought a full line of Nautilus equipment, after negotiations where everything would be funded by nautilus and also provide training, West point would provide subjects and measurement evaluations for the 1975 study.

Jones believed that HIT would strengthen muscles, heart and lungs and increase flexibility without the pounding of running. The study was to test this contention. He even obtained some of Dr. Ken Cooper’s (Aerobics creator) colleagues to conduct the cardio fitness tests, to head off skepticism about results. The majority of subjects were 2nd and 3rd string football players, the coach wouldn’t let 1st stringers take part. The workouts were brutal HIT, AJ (Arthur Jones) style. Don Shula the Miami Dolphin football coach came in for a day. Jones even set up an after hours program so other West Point coaches, faculty and families could take part. That program was called Project Total Conditioning.

After 6 weeks the study was complete 19 subjects doing HIT with 16 in a control group. The results:

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Muscular Strength. After 17 workouts, the HIT group increased an average of 59% on ten exercises. There was no strength gains by the control group.

Cardiovascular Endurance. Subjects were wired with continuous EKG and blood pressure, tested several ways including an all-out test on stationary bike and a two mile run. The HIT group was significantly better on all heart rate and blood pressure tests than the control group during all types of exertion. The two mile run showed the only negative, The Hit group’s average time was reduced by 88 seconds, while the control group ran it 20 seconds faster than their average.

Joint Flexibility. The HIT group improved their average trunk and shoulder flexibility by 11%. The control increased their average by only 1%.

It was felt that he showed HIT and the nautilus machines build strength, cardo improvements and flexibility at a higher rate than standard training.

Several members of the West Point faculty wrote books on HIT they were sold on HIT including Dan Riley a premier strength coach at Penn State, Washington Redskins and the Huston Texans, always teaching HIT to players and other trainers along the way.

The beginning of HIT – High Intensity Training

The beginning of HIT. High Intensity Training

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I do have a chuckle every time I hear someone talking about high intensity training as a ‘new’ concept!
As you will read below, the concept of HIT has been around for a long time. I’m particularly interested as I aim to build lots of lean, metabolically active tissue in my clients as it’s THE best way to burn all their unwanted fat fast!

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The Colorado Experiment was a bodybuilding experiment run by Arthur Jones using Nautilus equipment at the Colorado State University in May 1973.[1]
It is of interest due to its claims that incredible results can be achieved with a small number of sessions using single sets of high intensity repetitions to momentary muscle failure focusing on negative or lowering multi-joint exercises. The first subject, Casey Viator, was said to have gained 63 pounds of muscle in 28 days and the second, Arthur Jones, gained 15 pounds in 22 days.
These claims are considered controversial because it was only performed with two subjects who were not “average,” but regaining pre-existing muscle mass.[2]
The results of the experiment do not appear to have been repeated in a scientific study.
References[edit]

[1] http://baye.com/colorado-experiment/
[2] http://blog.legendarylife.com/the-colorado-experiment

In the next part we’ll look at the West Point Experiment by Arthur Jones in Colorado which set out to prove HIT in a bigger group of subjects.

Why Crossfit May NOT Be Good For You

Why Crossfit May Not Be Good For You

I found this and thought you should have a read….. a few interesting points about who Crossfit is aimed at, how hard you should train and do the coaches have enough training?  Anyone can ‘Beast’ a client  not many can ‘Coach’ clients……

This discussion seems to make sense to me – Coach Boyle is very respected in his field and in the industry as a whole.

 

Michael Boyle
                       

Crossfit gyms are springing up all over the world. They are cheap and easy to open, with only a weekend certification and a few thousand dollars worth of equipment. This appeals to many in the fitness business. You can be part of a rapidly growing trend and you can do it without great expense. I am not a Crossfit fan so some might view this piece as yellow journalism. I will try to keep my personal opinions to myself and deal with what is generally agreed upon as safe in strength and conditioning.

First, a little background. To be honest, I knew very little about Crossfit until I was contacted by representatives of SOMA, the Special Operations Medical Association, in 2005. Crossfit was their concern, not mine. I was asked to come to the SOMA meeting in Tampa, Florida to discuss training special operations soldiers. At a panel discussion in 2005 I offered answers to questions asked about Crossfit and the controversy began. What follows is not from the SOMA meeting but, my thoughts since.

Major Question 1- Is planned randomization a valid concept. Crossfit is based on the idea that the workouts are planned but deliberately random. I think that the term planned randomization is an oxymoron. Workouts are either planned or random. I believe strongly that workouts should be planned and that a specific progression should be followed to prevent injury.

I sometimes plan sessions that relate to each other week to week – but not Day to Day – is this also planned randomisation.

But seriously, I know what Coach Boyle means. To be effective programmes should gradually build in frequency, intensity, duration and type of training, over the short and very long term.

 

Major Question 2- Is Training to Failure Safe? Because Crossfit is, at it’s heart, a competitive or self-competitive program it becomes necessary to train to failure. There are two layers or problem here. One is the simple question of whether training to failure is beneficial to the trainee. Some strength and conditioning experts believe training to failure is beneficial, others caution against. I must admit that I like training to failure.

However, this brings up the larger question of what constitutes failure. Strength and Conditioning Coach Charles Poliquin (another non-Crossfit fan) popularized the term “technical failure” and, this is the definition that we adhere to.

Technical failure occurs not when the athlete or client is no longer capable of doing the exercise but, when the athlete or client can no longer do the exercise with proper technique. In training beyond technical failure the stress shifts to tissues that were not, and probably should not, be the target of the exercise. The third layer of the training to failure question relates to what movements lend themselves to training to failure. In the area of “generally agreed as safe”, high velocity movements like Olympic lifts and jumps are not generally done to failure and never should be taken beyond technical failure. Is it one bad rep versus multiple bad reps? How many bad reps is too many?

It seems mad to train beyond the point of having good form (therefore safe execution of the exercise)

 

Major Question 3- Is an overuse injury (generally an injury caused by repeated exposure to light loads), different from an overstress injury (an injury caused by exposure to heavy loads). Both are injuries.

The first is overuse, the second is trauma. In my mind injuries are injuries, period.

I agree – I am always looking for ways to include mobilisations to improve movement patterns, prepare for training and get more value out of the warm-up/prep phase of every workout.  My 5 week programme gives us a chance to really focus on muscle balance, injury prevention, 3 Dimension training and recovery.

 

Major Question 4- Should adults be Olympic lifters? I don’t think that Olympic lifts are for all adults. Most adults can’t get their arms safely over their head once much less fifty times with load. The other question that begs to be asked is should anyone do high rep Olympic lifts. I know the best Olympic lifters in the world say no. With all that said believe it or not my biggest problem is actually less with the actual workouts than it is with the false bravado and character assassination of dissenters. The community can be pretty venomous when you question Coach Glassman.

 

The Crossfit community is also filled with people who tell you that injury is a normal part of the training process. I have spoken up against endurance athletes who willingly hurt themselves and to me, this is no difference than the current Crossfit controversy. I know that this will generate more controversy but, Crossfit might be the biggest controversy in strength and conditioning since HIT training.

I use HIIT as a method in some programs….

Quite different to HIT.

HIT is High Intensity Training, HIIT is High Intensity Interval Training….  I can vary the interval to build endurance before I progress the load/weigh Intensity to improve strength.

This way, beginners can work alongside experienced clients without fear of injury or embarrassment!

 

 

Hope this will encourage you to question training methods and the quality of the ‘coaching’ available to you.

 

Jax Allen Fitness