Coca-Cola ‘trying to manipulate public’ on sugar-obesity link

Coca-Cola has spent millions of pounds funding research institutes and scientists who cast doubt on the link between sugary drinks and obesity.


The drinks firm is said to have links to more than a dozen British scientists, including government health advisers, who counter claims that its drinks contribute to obesity.

The revelation of Coca-Cola’s scientific funding comes weeks after the government rejected a tax on sugar sweetened drinks, despite support from Chief Medical Officer Dame Sally Davies, the British Medical Association and TV chef Jamie Oliver.

An investigation by The Times published on Friday revealed the full scale of Coca-Cola’s funding of scientists.

According to the investigation, Coca-Cola spent £4.86 million setting up the European Hydration Institute (EHI), a seemingly independent research foundation which has recommended sport and soft drinks of the sort the company sells to the public, including children.

The newspaper claimed that Ron Maughan, chairman of the EHI’s scientific advisory board, is an emeritus professor from a university which received almost £1 million from Coca-Cola while he provided nutritional advice to leading sports bodies.

Maughan has advised UK Athletics and the Football Association and has also been a consultant for Coca-Cola and other drinks companies since the 1990s, according to The Times.

Coca-Cola is said to have provided support, sponsorship or research funding to a variety of British organizations including UKActive, the British Nutrition Foundation, the University of Hull, Homerton University Hospital, the National Obesity Forum, the British Dietetic Association, Obesity Week 2013 and the UK Association for the Study of Obesity.

Through its trade organizations, Coca-Cola representatives have met government officials and ministers more than 100 times between 2011 and 2014, according to The Times. Coca-Cola is also said to host a parliamentary dinner.

Faculty of Public Health board member Simon Capewell accused Coca-Cola of trying to shape public opinion.

Coca-Cola is trying to manipulate not just public opinion but policy and political decisions. Its tactics echo those used by the tobacco and alcohol industries, which have also tried to influence the scientific process by funding apparently independent groups. It’s a conflict of interest that flies in the face of good practice,” he said.

New York-based nutrition researcher Marion Nestle warned scientists should not take money from Coca-Cola.

In my opinion, no scientist should accept funding from Coca-Cola. It’s totally compromising. Period. End of discussion,” said Nestle, a professor of nutrition, food studies and public health.

Coca-Cola of Great Britain said: “We rely on scientific research to make decisions about our products and ingredients and commission independent third parties to carry out this work.”

Professor Maughan recognized “the need for caution” over industry funding but said that much good research would not otherwise have taken place. Loughborough said its research studies were subject to a strict code of conduct.

Growing Portions Cause Obesity!

Retailers could be forced to charge more for bigger servings to counter damage being done, say Cambridge University experts





Larger sizes are threatening people’s health by encouraging them to overeat, according to experts from Cambridge University, including the government’s chief advisor on obesity.

In a warning about the dangers of overserving, the authors calculated that ridding bigger portions from our diet would make consumers reduce their energy intake from food by 16%, and thereby help fight against obesity.

The damage caused by overserving is so great that the government may have to limit how big servings can be or force retailers to charge much more for them in an attempt to reduce consumption, the authors said. 

Ian Shemilt, who led the research, said: “At the moment it is all too easy – and often better value for money – for us to eat and drink too much. The evidence is compelling now that actions which reduce the size, availability and appeal of large servings can make a difference to the amounts people eat and drink.”

Shemilt pointed to evidence collated by the British Heart Foundation in 2013 showing that curry ready meals had expanded by 50% in the previous 20 years, as had the number of crisps in a family bag. 

An individual shepherd’s pie ready meal grew by 98%, chicken pies were 40% bigger and a meat lasagne ready meal for one had increased by 39%. 

Food campaigners said the study, published in the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, showed the food industry had to do more to reduce the overconsumption of calories by limiting the size of its products. 

Malcom Clark, the co-ordinator of the Children’s Food Campaign, said: “Bigger plates, bigger packs, bigger portions, bigger us. It’s nudge theory, encouraging us – like so many other prevalent marketing tactics used by the food industry – to consume far more sugar, fat and calories than we ought to, and making it much easier to do so. 

“Initiatives such as limiting chocolate bar single-serve portion size to 250 calories are a start. To counter the huge rise of sharing sizes and snacking bags, especially those aimed at children and family consumption, the government needs to take a hard look in its childhood obesity strategy at how less healthy items are marketed and at what price.”

Downing Street policy officials are drawing up the new strategy, which David Cameron is expected to launch in November. There has been sustained criticismthat the Responsibility Deal approach adopted in 2010, involving voluntary agreements with the food industry, is not countering rising childhood obesity

The authors arrived at their conclusions after examining the results of 61 previous studies, involving 6,711 participants, looking at the influence of the size of portion, packaging and tableware on how much food people eat. They include Prof Susan Jebb, who advises ministers on food and nutrition policy. 

If British consumers could avoid outsized portions, they would cut the amount of energy they get every day from food by 12%-16%, or up to 279 calories, the authors said. If American adults did the same, they could reduce their intake by 22%-29%, or a maximum of 527 calories each daily. 

Prof Brian Ratcliffe, an emeritus professor of nutrition at Robert Gordon University in Aberdeen, said: “This review provides evidence to support what might seem to be a self-evident truth, that serving larger portions leads to greater levels of consumption, and the effect seems to be more pronounced in adults than children.

“Presumably related to a lack of effective self-restraint, people seem to be reluctant to leave or waste food and so consume what they are served or find larger portions more attractive.” 

More restaurants and fast-food premises should follow the lead set by the few that already offer more than one portion size, he added. 

The Food and Drink Federation, which represents manufacturers, said in a statement that “this research once again confirms the complexity of tackling obesity and that multiple solutions are required, from considering the food we eat to the size of spoons we use to serve food.”

It said firms were providing clear nutritional information on the side of their products, including about portion sizes, and offering a range of portion sizes. 

Dr Alison Tedstone, the chief nutritionist at Public Health England, said: “This study clearly demonstrates that reducing portion sizes is a successful way to cut calories. Given that almost two-thirds of adults are overweight or obese, it’s important to keep an eye on portion sizes when cooking, shopping and eating out to avoid overeating and help maintain a healthy weight.”

Why Are We Getting Fatter?

Are we getting fatter simply because we make bad choices?

Are we simply eating too much AND choosing NOT to move enough?

OR

Is the food industry producing addictive foods?

Is our environment overfilled with food?

The media jumps on the popular hype which is being pushed by our government!
We hear it every day – eat less – move more!
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If you’ve ever tried that – and it’s just the same as restricting calories. You lose scale weight for a while, but as soon as you sat normal amounts of food the weight likes back on!
You will gain fat quicker than ever…

So. What do you do? Try again? Just to prove that you are a failure at trying to ‘diet’. Probably you’ll give up.

Strangely, that might be the best thing to do….

A 20 year study where chimpanzees were given a calorie controlled diet actually GAINED 30% weight every decade!
Sound familiar?….
[Proc Biol Sci 278(1712):1626-32.doi:10.1098/RSPB.2010.1890]

So, PLEASE please don’t blame your will power (I don’t believe it exists)

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It’s expected that MOST (60%) adults will be obese by 2030!
[Journal of Preventative Medicine – 32:5. Pp536-570, June 2012

Over the coming decade sits expected that more people will due as a result of Obesity – 120 Million- that’s more than 3 times the number if ALL deaths from ALL wars since 1900.

Our government is about to start yet another scheme to pay Ives people as they lose weight! Offering free gym memberships didn’t work – I believe this will be another massive waste of money.

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Obesity is much more than simply poor food choices or being a couch potato !
Here’s my recipe…..
Start by banning ‘Diet’. ‘Lite’ and ‘Low Fat’ foods.
Eat real food
Avoid anything with added sugar
If you can’t pronounce the ingredients don’t eat it.
3 simple meals everyday
2 snacks – no sugar or salt
Eat protein at every meal – and snack
Drink more water
Eat fruit daily
Eat more veggies than fruit
If you don’t want to eat it DONT but it
Eat processed, convenience foods less
Go for long, slow relaxed walks every week – or more.
Learn to relax
Switch Off your tech 1 hour before you go to bed
Get better quality sleep

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You see it’s more about lifestyle and attitude than calories in and calories out!
Be happy, don’t stress and your body will heal itself if you give it half a chance and the right stuff!

Eat Clean. Train Smart. Feel Better!

Jax

Step 1- Cheat Food List

Step 1: Write down all your favourite foods.

Make sure to keep this list close to your kitchen, so you’ll have it when you’re craving cheat foods, but you’re not sure what to eat. You’ll be able to use this list to tempt you.

I find it hard to cheat well – especially as time goes on, I forget the foods I once craved for. A bonus when you go shopping, less losing your way into the centre aisles of the food market.

But, if you want to keep your fat busting hormones on side you can’t restrict calories everyday. To avoid starvation mode you need to have a planned re-feed or cheat day. To begin it might be a meal where you have a little alcohol, a pudding and the Meal itself might be less than ideal – health wise.
But remember the whole point isn’t to eat carefully or to count calories – it’s to help your body relax, to persuade your fat controlling hormones that food is available and so release stored fat as energy on the days following your cheat day.

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These might be some of your favourite cheat foods – make a FULL and REAL list put on the inside of your food journal, so you can take inspiration when you make your cheat day shopping list!

Eat Clean. Live Well. Feel Great!

Jax

Food FACTS Keep Changing! FATS? WINE?

Last week science helped us clearly establish that wine may or may not be good for you.
‘Here we go again’ I hear you say!

Now, what about fat?

The Big Fat Surprise’ author Nina Teicholz
In the latest is-it-or-isn’t-it nutrition debate, author and cheese advocate Nina Teicholz says fat has been misunderstood and unfairly vilified. Her new book, The Big Fat Surprise, argues that more fat—including the saturated kind found in meat, dairy, and eggs—leads to better health and weight
We all want to know how she decided it was all right to give such seemingly indulgent advice. What follows is an edited, condensed version of the conversation.

So now you would have us get our fill of fat?

You can have a good 50, 60 percent of your calories as fat, and that’s fine.
It won’t damage your heart. Don’t be afraid of those foods. They’re tasty and uniquely satisfying, and we’ve been terrified of eating them. This French woman I ran into said, “I love cheese, but I feel like I’ll be condemning my children to being orphans.” And I said, “Eat the cheese! It won’t cause your early death, and it’s delicious.”

Saturated fat does not cause heart disease, and a high-fat diet over the last decade has been rigorously tested in numerous clinical trials, and it shows that a high-fat, low-carbohydrate diet is healthier than a low-fat diet looking at markers for heart disease, obesity, and diabetes.

What do you eat?

I start my day with bacon, or egg, or sausage, or meatballs.

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Meatballs?

‘Farmer Boy ‘ author Laura Ingalls

If you read Laura Ingalls Wilder’s Farmer Boy they eat meatballs for breakfast, too—I was so amused by that. For lunch I graze because I never really sit down for lunch. I’ll have handfuls of nuts, cheese, tuna fish salad. In the evening, we have some kind of stew or roasted chicken or fish.

But is a data point of one. Science is about looking at large groups of people—data points are anecdotes and they’re interesting, but they don’t establish truth. So you don’t have to eat chicken and fish for the rest of your life.
(1By the way, not all chickens are sources of unsaturated fat due to intensive production methods – but that’s another story!)

And you’re health is fine? Your weight?

The last time I got my cholesterol tested, it looked great; it looked better than when I was in my thirties, and I’m in my forties now. I’m not super thin because I’ve been sitting at my computer for so many months now, but my weight is normal.

Then why do all of us think fat is unhealthy?

The idea that saturated fat causes heart disease goes back to a theory rooted in the 1950s that was proposed by one scientist and became enshrined, first in the American Heart Association in 1961 and became basically over the years a fact. But it had never been tested. Evidence against it—when it was finally shown—[the claim] was really poor and inconclusive and has since fallen apart.

No offense, but why should we trust you?

I have been digging into this research for 10 years. I looked through all of the original research. I did not rely on any summary or review documents. We’re in the third generation of scientists universally believing that fat and saturated fat cause heart disease. That’s accepted, and no one goes back to read what it’s based on. I don’t accept—and have not accepted—any industry money in my research. Almost everyone in nutrition researchers [gets] funding from industry because the government just doesn’t fund that much nutrition research. It doesn’t automatically bias their results, but I came without any preconceptions in this field. I am an outsider who brings a rigorous, science-journalist perspective.

My Comments
I eat 2 or 3 chicken or goose eggs, bacon and spinach, sometimes sausages for breakfast most days of the week. And, have done for the last three or four years. I’m well into my 50’s and my recent cholesterol test brought back shocking results! A very high 7.2 value – I panicked! With a naughty giggle my health care provider then explained that my good cholesterol was very high and the bad stuff was NO problem, PHEW!!

I don’t have any worries recommending a high or higher real fat diet to my Heart Patients.

‘What’s a REAL fat diet?’
Foods that have naturally occurring fats like meat, eggs, fish, nuts and seeds
Yes, saturated and unsaturated fats!
Saturated fats are digested, dealt with easily by your body. We have survived as a species by eating them. The difference these days us that we mess with our food by processing it, adding things to it, feeding poor quality food to our chickens, pigs, sheep and cattle.
If you choose Free Range and Wild caught food you won’t go far wrong.
In the UK, we are lucky, there are many food suppliers that don’t follow the intense production methods that reduce the nutrient value of our basic food stuffs.
We can still buy local fruit and veggies, that aren’t sprayed with tons of chemicals, and we don’t have to buy Organic everything to guarantee that.

If you really want to reduce your chances of Heart Disease, Diabetes and Obesity you must add in real food – high fat – including Real cheese ( NOT Processed)
BUT eliminate as many grain based foods as possible – that beans breakfast cereals! Because the best way to elevate your cholesterol, inflammation, joint pain and lots more nasty conditions is to eat foods containing Omega 6’s and fake processed sugars.

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Think about where you get your calories (energy) from, do you eat a rainbow of foods? ( M & M’s don’t count) if you do and you drink enough fluid, you will have a healthy gut, and have no need for Bran based cereals.

Give it a try, you will feel full. You’re energy levels will balance out over the day, cravings will disappear and so you won’t want high sugar snacks at coffee time or on your commute home.

Eat Clean, Feel Great!

Reclaim Your Health #2 Drink Your Greens

Reclaim Your Health #2 Drink Your Greens

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Greens powders in water, diluted fruit juice or added to foods everyday
Compensate for diets short on fruit & veg
Easily absorbed vitamins, minerals and amino acids
High Anti-Oxidents boost & supports fat loss
Prevents cancers, obesity, heart disease.

Less Than 30 mins activity in 28 days!

Less Than 30 mins activity in 28 days!

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I truly believe we can do better.
Community fitness classes and cheap gyms haven’t made the impact hoped for.

A few days ago I saw a report about special Aqua sessions for those with very high BMI.

This morning I received the report below, and want to DO something about the situation. I’ve been teaching fitness since 1983, seniors since 1995 and Fatloss since 2009.
Last year I qualified as a Metabolic coach so know I could make a difference, if I can get them involved.

I’m looking for studio space and more important Pools to use and promote. If you can help please get in touch!

ukactive release ‘Turning the tide of inactivity report’
Today, ukactive have released the “Turning the tide of inactivity” report which has used local authority figures to calculate the number of people that are officially classed as “inactive” because they did not carry out half an hour of exercise in a 28 day period.

Problems resulting from a sedentary lifestyle are blamed for 17 per cent of premature deaths and cost the economy more than £8bn a year.

In the report, ukactive said: “Over the past 50 years, physical activity levels have declined by 20 per cent in the UK, with projections indicating a further 15 per cent drop by 2030.

“If this trend continues, by 2030 the average British person will use only 25 per cent more energy than they would have done had they just spent the day in bed.”

In the report Lord Sebastian Coe said: “Supporting people that do little or no daily activity to become a bit more active is where the biggest public health gains can be made.”

James Samuel, Event Director of Leisure Industry Week (LIW) said: “LIW are fully committed to helping ukactive in their mission to turn the tide of inactivity and get the country fit and healthy. We urge our LIW community to also continue to push the message to their own customers and databases so as an industry we can help make a difference.”

This report is a must read as it contains insight at a national and local level. Use this link to view the full report. http://www.liw.co.uk/inactivityreport/

Please pass this on to anyone you think might help, either by spreading the word, providing space a pool or funding for this community project.

Jax Allen Fitness.

Sugary drinks may boost uterine cancer risk

Sugary drinks may boost uterine cancer risk

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New research suggests that postmenopausal women who consume a high volume of sugar-sweetened drinks may have an increased risk for developing endometrial cancer, which is the lining of the uterus.

For the study, researchers looked at dietary and health data from 23,000 postmenopausal women between 1986 and 2004. Participants completed questionnaires about their intake of 127 different foods, including sugar-sweetened beverages, such as colas, carbonated beverages and fruit drinks.

The researchers found an association between consumption of sugar drinks and endometrial cancer, which affected more than 500 of the women by 2010. The results, published in the journal Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention, also showed that older women with higher body mass indexes, diabetes or those who had used estrogen had a higher risk for endometrial cancer.

Whether cancer risk and sugar consumption have a direct causal relationship is unclear; however, researchers said that one explanation for the study’s findings is that increased intake of sugar contributes to obesity, which increases risk for cancer. Sugary drinks are of particular concern because the way sugar is consumed affects how it is metabolized and absorbed—for example, digesting natural sugar with fibers in fruit is less harmful than digesting sugar-sweetened sodas, the researchers said.

Like the post? Follow the blog… Thanks. Jax

Want to Gain Weight Try Cardio!

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Here’s a fact: if you want to GAIN WEIGHT, then you should get on the treadmill.

Most people believe that the key to losing fat and getting in shape is to spend lots of time running on a treadmill, stepper or cycle….

But that’s dead wrong.

You see, long, slow cardio actually trains your body to store fat. It makes your body guard its fat closer than a hungry dog guards his food.

I know you’ve seen that famous button on the treadmill that reads: “Fat Burning Zone” but that button should really be called the “Fat STORING Zone” because that’s the real effect it has on your body.

When you spend 30, 40 or even 50 minutes pounding away on the treadmill, you send your body a powerful signal to start storing fat instead of burning it.

Why?

It’s all in your hormones.
Here’s what smart scientists (and trainers) know:

According to a study in the European Journal of Applied Physiology-
People who performed intense cardio suffered from decreased T3 hormone production.

(Eur J Appl Physiol. 2003 Jan; 88(4-5):480-4.)

T3 is the hormone produced by your thyroid to burn fat. When you do cardio, your body reacts to the stress by suppressing this fat burning hormone. This means your body starts gaining fat immediately. Why? Because your body needs the fat to function.

But it gets worse…

Doing cardio also puts massive amounts of stress on your body.

According to a 2011 study in the scientific journal Psychoneuroendocrinology-
Cardio increases the stress hormone cortisol.

(Skoluda, N., Dettenborn, L., et al. Elevated Hair Cortisol Concentrations in Endurance Athletes. Psychoneuroendocrinology. September 2011.)

Cortisol is associated with heart disease, cancer and visceral belly fat. That’s the kind of fat that hangs around your waist.

If cortisol and T3 weren’t bad enough…

During long, slow cardio – your appetite also increases.

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Have you ever CRAVED sugary food after you finish a long run? It always happens to me after swimming any distance!

I’m sure you have and it’s all because your body gets very greedy for food after you finish your cardio session. That’s why Gyms sell sugary snacks and drinks, it’s not because they’re good for you!

In fact, your body overreacts to cardio like a dramatic teenager, causing you to eat more and more food. Even worse, you always end up eating more fat-gaining calories AFTER you work out which means that you gain more and more weight.

A 2008 study in the International Journal of Obesity found that-
After cardio exercise, the subjects end up eating 100 calories more than they just burned off.

(Sonneville, K.R., et al. (2008) International Journal of Obesity. 32, S19-S27.)

Researchers have even found that people on a long term cardio plan actually GAIN weight instead of losing it. A 2006 study in the International Journal of Obesity found that runners who ran the same distance or slightly more each week had LARGER waistlines at the end of the 9 year study.

Not what you want to hear if you’ve been putting the hours in a the gym!?
But, you’re reading this because you still haven’t got the results you want….
Time for a change in approach to your training, perhaps.

More fat loss next time-

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Sugary Drinks and Obesity Fact Sheet

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Time to Focus on Healthier Drinks
Steps that consumers, soft drink makers, and government can take to cut back on sugary drinks.

An article from Harvard Public Health

The Problem: Sugary Drinks Are a Major Contributor to the Obesity Epidemic
Two out of three adults and one out of three children in the United States are overweight or obese, (1,2) and the nation spends an estimated $190 billion a year treating obesity-related health conditions. (3) Rising consumption of sugary drinks has been a major contributor to the obesity epidemic. (4) A typical 20-ounce soda contains 15 to 18 teaspoons of sugar and upwards of 240 calories. A 64-ounce fountain cola drink could have up to 700 calories. (5) People who drink this “liquid candy” do not feel as full as if they had eaten the same calories from solid food and do not compensate by eating less. (6)

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Beverage companies in the US spent roughly $3.2 billion marketing carbonated beverages in 2006, with nearly a half billion dollars of that marketing aimed directly at youth ages 2–17. (7) And each year, youth see hundreds of television ads for sugar-containing drinks. In 2010, for example, preschoolers viewed an average of 213 ads for sugary drinks and energy drinks, while children and teens watched an average of 277 and 406 ads, respectively. (8) Yet the beverage industry aggressively rebuffs suggestions that its products and marketing tactics play any role in the obesity epidemic. (9) Adding to the confusion, beverage industry-funded studies are four to eight times more likely to show a finding favorable to industry than independently-funded studies. (10) This fact sheet assembles key scientific evidence on the link between sugary drink consumption and obesity.


The Evidence: Soft Drink Consumption Is Rising and Harms Health

Sugary drink portion sizes have risen dramatically over the past 40 years, and children and adults are drinking more soft drinks than ever.

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Before the 1950s, standard soft-drink bottles were 6.5 ounces. In the 1950s, soft-drink makers introduced larger sizes, including the 12-ounce can, which became widely available in 1960. (11) By the early 1990s, 20-ounce plastic bottles became the norm. (12) Today, contour-shaped plastic bottles are available in even larger sizes, such as the 1.25-liter (42-ounce) bottle introduced in 2011. (13)
In the 1970s, sugary drinks made up about 4% of US daily calorie intake; by 2001, that had risen to about 9%. (14)

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Children and youth in the US averaged 224 calories per day from sugary beverages in 1999 to 2004—nearly 11% of their daily calorie intake. (15) From 1989 to 2008, calories from sugary beverages increased by 60% in children ages 6 to 11, from 130 to 209 calories per day, and the percentage of children consuming them rose from 79% to 91%. (16)
On any given day, half the people in the U.S. consume sugary drinks; 1 in 4 get at least 200 calories from such drinks; and 5% get at least 567 calories—equivalent to four cans of soda. (17) Sugary drinks (soda, energy, sports drinks) are the top calorie source in teens’ diets (226 calories per day), beating out pizza (213 calories per day). (18)
Sugary drinks increase the risk of obesity, diabetes, heart disease, and gout.

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A 20-year study on 120,000 men and women found that people who increased their sugary drink consumption by one 12-ounce serving per day gained more weight over time—on average, an extra pound every 4 years—than people who did not change their intake. (19) Other studies have found a significant link between sugary drink consumption and weight gain in children. (20) One study found that for each additional 12-ounce soda children consumed each day, the odds of becoming obese increased by 60% during 1½ years of follow-up. (21)

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People who consume sugary drinks regularly—1 to 2 cans a day or more—have a 26% greater risk of developing type 2 diabetes than people who rarely have such drinks. (22) Risks are even greater in young adults and Asians.
A study that followed 40,000 men for two decades found that those who averaged one can of a sugary beverage per day had a 20% higher risk of having a heart attack or dying from a heart attack than men who rarely consumed sugary drinks. (23) A related study in women found a similar sugary beverage–heart disease link. (24)

A 22-year study of 80,000 women found that those who consumed a can a day of sugary drink had a 75% higher risk of gout than women who rarely had such drinks. (25) Researchers found a similarly-elevated risk in men. (26)
Cutting back on sugary drinks can help people control their weight.

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Studies in children and adults have found that reducing sugary drink consumption can lead to better weight control among those who are initially overweight. (27,28)
References
1. Ogden CL, Carroll MD, Kit BK, Flegal KM. Prevalence of obesity and trends in body mass index among US children and adolescents, 1999-2010. JAMA. 2012;307:483-90.

2. Flegal KM, Carroll MD, Kit BK, Ogden CL. Prevalence of obesity and trends in the distribution of body mass index among US adults, 1999-2010. JAMA. 2012;307:491-7.

3. Cawley J, Meyerhoefer C. The medical care costs of obesity: an instrumental variables approach. J Health Econ. 2012;31:219-30.

4. Institute of Medicine. Accelerating Progress in Obesity Prevention: Solving the Weight of the Nation. Washington, DC: National Academies Press; 2012.

5. US Department of Agriculture. Nutrient data for 14400, Carbonated beverage, cola, contains caffeine. National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference, Release 24. 2012. Accessed June 21, 2012, http://ndb.nal.usda.gov/ndb/foods/show/4337

6. Pan A, Hu FB. Effects of carbohydrates on satiety: differences between liquid and solid food. Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care. 2011;14:385-90.

7. US Federal Trade Commission. Marketing Food to Children and Adolescents: A Review of Industry Expenditures, Activities, and Self-Regulation. Washington, DC: US Federal Trade Commission; 2008.

8. Harris J, Schwartz MB, Brownell KD, et al. Sugary Drink FACTS: Evaluating Sugary Drink Nutrition and Marketing to Youth. New Haven, CT: Rudd Center for Food Policy and Obesity; 2011.

9. Coca-Cola: Don’t blame us for obesity epidemic! The New York Daily News June 8, 2012.

10. Lesser LI, Ebbeling CB, Goozner M, Wypij D, Ludwig DS. Relationship between funding source and conclusion among nutrition-related scientific articles. PLoS Med. 2007;4:e5.

11. The Coca-Cola Company. History of Bottling. Accessed June 21, 2012, http://www.thecoca-colacompany.com/ourcompany/historybottling.html

12. Jacobson M. Liquid Candy: How Soft Drinks are Harming Americans’ Health. Washignton, DC: Center for Science in the Public Interest; 2005.

13. The Coca-Cola Company. 1.25 For 125! New 1.25 Liter Coca-Cola Package Rolls Out as Part of Brand’s 125th Anniversary Celebration 2011. Accessed June 25, 2012, http://www.thecoca-colacompany.com/dynamic/press_center/2011/05/125-for-125.html

14. Nielsen SJ, Popkin BM. Changes in beverage intake between 1977 and 2001. Am J Prev Med. 2004;27:205-10.

15. Wang YC, Bleich SN, Gortmaker SL. Increasing caloric contribution from sugar-sweetened beverages and 100% fruit juices among US children and adolescents, 1988-2004. Pediatrics. 2008;121:e1604-14.

16. Lasater G, Piernas C, Popkin BM. Beverage patterns and trends among school-aged children in the US, 1989-2008. Nutr J. 2011;10:103.

17. Ogden CL, Kit BK, Carroll MD, Park S. Consumption of sugar drinks in the United States, 2005-2008<. NCHS Data Brief. 2011:1-8.

18. National Cancer Institute. Mean Intake of Energy and Mean Contribution (kcal) of Various Foods Among US Population, by Age, NHANES 2005–06. Accessed June 21, 2012, http://riskfactor.cancer.gov/diet/foodsources/

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